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High temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped nanocrystalline thin films
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

X-ray diffraction patterns of thin films with .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Right-hand side: Intensity variation in the XRD peaks, (101) and (200), of thin films with Mn concentration. Left-hand side: The dotted line marks the position of the (200) peak in the undoped films, and the solid arrows indicate the shift in the position of (200) peak with a Mn concentration up to .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Variation of (a) lattice volume , (b) lattice parameter , and (c) lattice parameter with Mn concentration.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Variation of the relative structure factor of different planes of thin films. It may be noted that (110) and (200) peaks have been greatly affected by Mn substitution.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

TEM and SAED patterns [(a), (c), and (e)] of the undoped , , and films, respectively. Corresponding diffraction patterns (obtained by converting the SAED pattern) for the undoped , , and films, are shown in (b), (d), and (f), respectively.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Raw curves of thin films with , 0.075, and 0.10. The curves have been shifted along the axis for better clarity. Inset: (ferromagnetic fraction) vs plot of films with at RT, obtained by subtracting the diamagnetic contributions.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Temperature dependence of the magnetization of film. For comparison, the temperature dependence of magnetization of the undoped thin films is also shown.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

RT variation of (a) free carrier concentration and (b) electron mobility of thin films with Mn concentration.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Variation of the electrical resistivity with both temperature and Mn concentration in thin films. Inset: Variation of RT electrical resistivity as a function of Mn concentration.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Variation of the transmittance of thin films with incident photon energy as a function of Mn concentration. Inset: Variation of the optical absorption coefficient of a few samples as a function of Mn concentration.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Variation of the optical band gap of thin films with Mn concentration, predicting a random alloy formation. Inset: Transparency of different films with .

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Raw curves of F-doped films with different F concentrations: (a) 10, (b) 7.5, and (c) . Inset: Variation of saturation magnetization with F concentration.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Variation of lattice parameters ( and ) of the unit cell and grain size of nanocrystalline thin films with Mn concentration.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High temperature ferromagnetism in Mn-doped SnO2 nanocrystalline thin films