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Void growth modeling upon electromigration stressing in narrow copper lines
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10.1063/1.2822434
/content/aip/journal/jap/102/12/10.1063/1.2822434
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/102/12/10.1063/1.2822434

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic representation of a quarter-spherical void growth mechanism (a) and a semicylindrical growth mechanism (b).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Schematic representation of the different phases during the evolution of the semispherical void growth.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Simulation of the resistance profile during void growth in a stressed line using a quarter-spherical void growth model.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Comparison of the normalized resistance profile of the semicylindrical, semispherical, and the quarter-spherical void-growth model.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Resistance profiles for a typical electromigration experiment with 3-mm-long copper lines and 10/15 nm TaN/Ta barrier (, ). The inset shows a TEM cross section of the tested line.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Resistance profiles of a typical electromigration experiment carried in 1.5-mm-long 100-nm-wide copper lines with 5/10 nm TaN /Ta conformal barrier (, ). The inset shows a TEM cross section of the line. The earliest jump shows a resistance increase.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Post-stress FIB cross section of a tested line. The void displays a larger length than depth.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

(Color online) TEM cross section of a void after EM testing. The line cross-sectional area is completely voided.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(Color online) Simulation of the effect of the barrier thickness on the size of the resistance jump and on the slope of the resistance increase.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Experimental 5/10 nm TaN/Ta nonconformal barrier, 1.5-mm-long, 100-nm-wide copper lines. The inset shows a TEM cross section of the line (, ). The earliest jump shows a resistance increase.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(Color online) Simulation of the effect of the line length in the size of the jump and in the increase of resistance.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(Color online) Simulation of the effect of the Cu line width on the size of the resistance jump and on the increase of resistance.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(Color online) Example of a typical experimental resistance profile. Resistance jumps are indicated with arrows. Bottom frame: schematic of the state of the line at several slots of time.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Resistance profile, obtained upon electromigration stressing (, ), and simulation profile, applying the semicylindrical model, of 1.5-mm-long copper lines with a 5/10 nm TaN/Ta nonconformal barrier. Physical failure analysis reveals two voids (upper frame), corresponding to the two “jumps” in the resistance profile. The physical size of the voids agrees with the simulated size. Combined voiding of the line results in an increase of the slope after the second jump. The inset shows a TEM cross section of a typical line.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(Color online) Effect of different void aspect ratios, described with the model parameter IR.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Multiple linear regression analysis of 3 mm copper lines.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Simulation results and fitting parameters from the semicylindrical model application.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Semicylindrical simulation parameters.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/102/12/10.1063/1.2822434
2007-12-28
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Void growth modeling upon electromigration stressing in narrow copper lines
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/102/12/10.1063/1.2822434
10.1063/1.2822434
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