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Nanodomains in morphotropic lead zirconate titanate ceramics: On the origin of the strong piezoelectric effect
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Phase diagram of the system with the compositions of the investigated samples marked. Phase diagram can be found, e.g., in Ref. 23.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Stereographic projection for tetragonal, rhombohedral, and monoclinic symmetry (top row), simulated CBED patterns for the three symmetries (middle row), and experimental finding (bottom row): The sample containing of shows tetragonal symmetry, the sample containing shows rhombohedral symmetry—mirror planes are indicated as a white line.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) TEM bright field images (BF) along the [010] and [011] axes and corresponding sections of the x-ray full patterns of PZT ceramics with , , , and of are shown. Nanodomains are found in all of these samples except the one containing , which is clearly off the morphotropic region.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) The cooling experiment of the sample with a content of demonstrates the correlation between the nano-domain formation and the associated intensity change in the x-ray pattern. (The TEM images are of identical regions.)

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

TEM bright-field images taken during the third cycle of an in situ experiment with applied electric field. The sample contains of . The images show the microdomain and nanodomain structures; the microdomains walls are labeled with the numbers 1–3, and the domains with 4–6 (upper left). While the microdomain structure remains visibly unchanged during the poling cycles, the nanodomains, visible as stripe-like structures within the microdomains, respond to the electric field. A complete movie of this poling cycle can be seen in the online version of the journal. The electron diffraction pattern shows that the sample is tilted approximately off a pseudocubic [110] axis.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(Color online) In situ high resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) of the same significant set of reflections shown in Fig. 3. The evolution of the peak correlated with the existence of nanodomains with an applied electric field is demonstrated.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Nanodomains in morphotropic lead zirconate titanate ceramics: On the origin of the strong piezoelectric effect