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Small-angle neutron scattering in materials science: Recent practical applications
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic configuration of polymer molecules showing how deuterium labeling can be used to “stain” individual molecules and make them “visible” in the condensed state or concentrated (overlapping) polymer solutions via small angle neutron scattering.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

vs from H-polyethylene (blank) and 2% of D-polyethylene in the PEH matrix.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Typical Zimm plot for D-polyethylene molecules in the H-polyethylene matrix quenched from the melt.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Kratky plot for D-polyethylene molecules in the H-polyethylene matrix in the melt at .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

vs from polyethylene-poly(ethylene-propylene) (PE-PEP) diblock copolymer (, ) in decane under the “core contrast” with and without the addition of 0.5% . The SLD of the wax is equal to that of the solvent which makes the wax “invisible” to neutrons (Ref. 49).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

for the same system as in Fig. 5, but under the “brush contrast.” SLDs of the core and wax are matched to that of solvent, which makes them invisible to neutrons. These data make it possible to reconstruct the brush concentration profile with and without added wax (Ref. 49).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Schematic illustration of microemulsion structure and SANS cross section for phosphate ester surfactants swollen with and .

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Temperature dependence of water droplet dimensions.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Pressure dependence of water droplet dimensions.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(Color online) Samples of -decane- in Hellma quartz cells at . From left to right the concentration of the block copolymer increases: (a) 0%, (b) 1.5%, (c) 5%, and (d) 11.5%, leading to a dramatic increase of the volume of the middle phase.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Schematic illustration of the bicontinulus microemulsion structure and the polymer distribution on the interface as inferred from the SANS data described in this paper.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Debye plot derived from a SANS experiment on a stack of Nanoglass™ thin films (with the silicon substrate attached). The open circles are for the as-received thin films, and the crosses are for the films immersed in -toluene. The slope of the fitted line gives the correlatin length of the porous structure. The extrapolated intercept at gives the poosity and the mass density of the pore wall material.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Transmission of the -saturated aerogel without and with the adsorbed phase ( and , respectively) as a function of the fluid density. The inset shows the variation of excess adsorption as a function of .

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Density of the unadsorbed and adsorbed -propane in aerogel ( and , respectively) as a function of pressure. Hollow triangles represent the pressure dependence of the volume of the adsorbed phase.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Excess and absolute adsorption parameters of -propane in aerogel as a function of pressure.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Guinier plots for and fullerenes in at the fullerene concentration shown in the inset.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Power law scattering from several fractal objects.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

Rocking curves for single- and triple-bounce crystals. Addition of a Cd adsorber prevents neutron propagation inside the Si walls and greatly improves the USANS sensitivity. Etching removes surface imperfections and further enhances the signal-to-noise ratio.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

Combined USANS, SANS, and WANS data for a PVA gel saturated with .

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

(Color online) A cross section of a small ammonite through a 3D volume provided by neutron tomography.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

Snapshot of a running BMW car engine operating at .


Generic image for table
Table I.

Neutron scattering length densities of some polymers and solvents (at room temperature except for ).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Small-angle neutron scattering in materials science: Recent practical applications