Optical absorption spectra of Sn-implanted and -annealed samples. Spectra are shifted vertically for clarity.
Below band-gap absorption spectra of the samples annealed in air at 600, 800, and . Solid lines are fits using Eq. (2). Spectra (a) and (b) are shifted vertically for clarity.
Bright-field XTEM micrographs taken on the (a) air-annealed and (b) as-grown samples. Insets show their corresponding HRTEM images of a particle for each sample. The lattice spacings are marked on the HRTEM images using two lines. The lattice spacings, shown in the insets of (a) and (b), are identified as the plane of rutile and the plane of -Sn crystals, respectively.
Room temperature micro-Raman spectra of Sn-implanted and -annealed samples. The classical Raman modes and corresponding to rutile are indicated in the figure. The spectrum of sample annealed at is shifted vertically for clarity.
Magnified micro-Raman spectra of band, of the samples oxidized at and above . The peak intensity decreases with increasing temperature and almost disappears at .
Parameters obtained from the optical absorption spectra for the as-grown samples annealed in air at and above .
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