On 1 in. substrates (a) measurement on a 50 nm by 150 nm elliptical device shows and . (b) measurement at an external offset field of shows and switching at and , respectively. The TMR values in (a) and (b) are equal, indicating the current-induced magnetic switching is complete.
Transmission electron microscope image of a device after process integration on 200 mm substrate was completed. The image shows a well defined MTJ contacted by a top electrode.
On 200 mm substrates (a) measurement for 80 nm by 160 nm elliptical devices shows and . (b) At an external field bias of , measurement shows and switching and , respectively. The comparable TMR values from the and plots indicate complete magnetic switching.
(a) Distribution of quasistatic breakdown voltages measured on elliptical devices of size 80 nm by 160 nm. The distribution shows a bimodal trend, indicating two main breakdown mechanisms. (b) measurement showing the two types of breakdowns. The top figure shows gradual breakdown. The bottom figure shows abrupt breakdown. Before the breakdown happens, the MTJ goes through an incomplete switching.
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