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Taylor cones of ionic liquids from capillary tubes as sources of pure ions: The role of surface tension and electrical conductivity
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

TOF curves of formates using a stainless steel needle ( i.d.). The highest current corresponds to the highest voltage and pressure on the liquid reservoir. (a) ; ; ; . (b) ; ; varying and . (c) ; ; ; ; over , the regimes are ionic. (d) in positive and negative modes; ; .

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Representative propulsion characteristics of the formate-based ionic liquids, with units indicated on each curve. (a) For , note that high current losses take place in the extractor. (b) runs in the drop-dominated regime with low specific impulse and fair propulsion efficiency.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

TOF spectra for electrosprays of pure . The left figure is a detail at shorter times, showing the steps associated to the ions. The figure to the right includes the full spectrum showing a large tail of charged drops. ; ; i.d.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Emissions from critical mixture of , below which the purely ionic regime (right) is sometimes observed. The mixed regime may also arise (left; , , ). Although the purely ionic regime arises at higher voltages, it remains “put” as the voltage is later reduced (right; , , ).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

TOF spectrum for an electrospray of pure EMI–TfO showing almost purely ionic emission. ; .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

TOF spectrum of seeded with acid showing a behavior close to the purely ionic regime.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

TOF spectra comparing the emissions from with those of four other ionic liquids of relatively high surface tension and electrical conductivity.


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Table I.

Ionic liquids studied Refs. 18 and 19 including key physical parameters and the temperature at which their Taylor cones achieve the purely ionic regime. Cations: EMI=1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium; DMPI=1,2-dimethyl-3-propylimidazolium; MI=1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium; MI=1-pentyl-3-methylimida-zolium; , commercialyzed by Cytec under the name Cyphos. Anions: .

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Table II.

Some characteristics of the ionic liquids synthesized by Garoz (Ref. 20). Anions: .

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Table III.

Propulsive characteristics of several formate propellants.

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Table IV.

Characteristics of mixtures of as a function of concentration. regime; ionic regime; M&I means that both regimes are attainable at high and low voltages, respectively.

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Table V.

Electrical conductivities of several ionic liquids seeded with .

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Table VI.

Physical properties of the ionic liquids used in Fig. 7. Cations: -ethyl-2-methylpyrazolium.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Taylor cones of ionic liquids from capillary tubes as sources of pure ions: The role of surface tension and electrical conductivity