(Color online) Chemical structure of used materials and schematic structure showing the fabrication of the device with electrical and thermal treatments.
Current flows of sample (upper) and reference (lower) devices with organic salt during electrical and thermal treatments for given temperatures. The inset shows the voltage profile applied to the device for the electrical treatment.
(Color online) (a) Photographs of the operating reference device (left) and sample device (right). The active area of each PHOLED is . (b) The normalized EL spectra for the operating sample device (open circles) and reference device (closed circles).
Characteristics of (a) and (b) for the single-layered PHOLEDs with various concentrations of .
(a) Current efficiency vs luminance and (b) external quantum efficiency vs current density of the single-layered sample devices (open symbols) with various concentrations of and reference device (closed square).
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