(Color online) A schematic drawing of smooth calender bonding. Drawing is not to scale.
The flowchart of the procedure developed for generating uncompressed webs.
(Color online) An example of the uncompressed webs generated by our algorithm.
SVF of the square samples with the side lengths of 50, 250, and having different dimensionless basis weights.
Influence of sample size on the web SVF and thickness at a fixed dimensionless basis weight.
Influence of fiber orientation distribution on SVF of the fiberweb.
Influence of the gap size on SVF.
(Color online) Fiber bending at crossovers.
(Color online) Fiber bending with constant bending step (a) and constant bending span (b) with .
(Color online) A web compressed using constant bending step and constant bending span with (a) and (b).
(Color online) SEM images of a spun bonded fabric after calendering: (a) top view and (b) side view.
The flowcharts of the algorithms developed for reducing the web thickness with a constant (a), bending (b), and positioning of the cubes (c).
(Color online) A fluffy structure compacted with different compaction ratios. From top to bottom: ( and ), ( and ), ( and ), and ( and ). It can be seen that by increasing the compaction ratio from 1 to 5, SVF increases from 4.5% to 25%.
(Color online) Influence of the calendering temperature and pressure on the SVF of spun bonded fabrics.
(Color online) A fiberweb compressed with different bending slopes varying from to .
SVF profiles of the structures shown in Fig. 15. The local SVF is always higher at the top and bottom layers. The higher the bending slope, the greater is the difference between the fabrics’ SVF at the outer and inner layers.
(Color online) SEM image of the cross section of a fabric after calendering.
SVF profile through the thickness of the medium . Compaction is based on constant slope and constant span.
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