Top view of the UHV cluster tool for surface analysis, thin film deposition, and thermal treatments.
RHEED patterns for a clean Si surface (a) before and (b) after Se deposition at a substrate temperature of .
(Color online) Si peak evolution after various treatments. After the Se deposition, the increase in the shoulder intensity at the higher binding energies relative to the Si bulk corresponds to the formation of Si–Se bonds. After the first oxidation, all the Si suboxides are observed, including the oxidation state corresponding to the formation of
Si spectra before and after oxidation in of at of (a) the surface and (b) a clean silicon (001) wafer. The Se spectra before and after oxidation for the Se passivated surface is shown in the inset of the plot (a).
XPS spectra for Si , Se , O , and C after the Se deposition for takeoff angles of 35°, 45°, and 75°.
Angle resolved XPS intensities obtained from fitting spectra of Fig. 5. The size of the error bars in this plot is within the size of the data symbols.
Angle resolved XPS data after thermal oxidation of 1 ML of at .
ARXPS signal intensities after oxidation from spectra of Fig. 7. The size of the error bars in this plot is within the size of the data symbols.
Atomic concentration for the different deposition steps. The concentration scale is normalized to 1 ML of Si atoms in the (100) surface plane. The size of the error bars in this plot is within the size of the data symbols.
Proposed film structure derived from ARXPS results of 1 ML after thermal oxidation at for .
(a) Si and (b) Se XPS spectra before and after etching in 2% HF solution. The HF etching removes , while residual Se is still detected.
Top view of atomic surface arrangements for different surface treatments. (a) surface reconstruction of clean Si(001). (b) surface reconstruction of Si(001) passivated with 1 ML of Se. (c) Partial oxidation of Si surface at the initial stage of oxidation. (d) Si kickout effect close to the interface.
Si peak identification according to its binding energy.
Effective attenuation lengths from NIST database (see Ref. 32).
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