Principal states involved in population inversion in Si:P (left) and Si:Bi (right) (not to scale). The arrows up indicate pump transitions. The arrows down indicate the laser transitions. For Si:Bi the optical phonons, which deplete the and states, are shown by dotted arrows.
Sketch of the experimental setup for pumping with the free electron laser FELIX: (1) beam splitter, (2) attenuators, (3) mirrors, (4) optical windows, (5) Ge:Ga detector, (6) metal screen, (7) laser, (8) amplifier.
Sketch of the experimental setup for gain measurements with laser pumping: (1) beam splitter, (2) mirror, (3) attenuator, (4) photon drag-monitor, (5) sapphire filters, (6) Ge:Ga detector, (7) Si:P laser, (8) Si:P amplifier.
Emission pulses of the Si:P laser and the free electron laser FELIX (normalized to the peak of the Si:P emission). The pulse period is 20 ns. The pump frequency corresponds to the transition.
Pulsed gain of the (a) and (b) transitions of the Si:P laser and of the transition of the Si:Bi laser as a function of the FELIX macropulse energy (dots: experimental data; straight lines: model calculation based on the solution of balance equations).
Gain of the transitions in Si:P when excited with a laser (dots: experimental data; straight line: model calculation based on the solution of balance equations).
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