Sample setup of fully embedded PTO nanograins provided with collective gold or platinum top electrodes. The inset on the right shows a cross sectional scanning electron image of an embedded and polished PTO island of about in height.
Equivalent circuit diagram for embedded ferroelectric grains. The exponential leakage current through the film is described by inverse diodes. represents the total capacitive current through the dielectric materials in parallel to the PTO islands . Every distinct PTO island is subject to a residual dielectric layer or a defective boundary layer, leading to capacitive currents next to the ferroelectric switching currents within these in series elements.
Current response of HSQ embedded PTO grains measured at . The PFM insets indicate a much better electrical contact to the PTO islands for the solid curve (layer thickness: diameter Pt electrode) than for the dashed curve (remaining layer thickness: diameter Au electrode). For comparability reasons, both measurements were conducted under equal settings using the same probe tip with at .
curves of HSQ embedded PTO grains (solid) and an about thick PTO thin film (dashed) measured at using Pt top electrodes of (grains) and (thin film) in diameter. The PFM inset on the top left displays the percentage of piezoelectric activity on the embedded PTO grain surface.
curves of MSQ embedded PTO islands with a remaining layer thickness of about measured at different frequencies (dotted/dashed) and calculated compensated curve for the lower frequency of (solid). The measurements were performed under collective Pt top electrodes of in diameter.
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