(a) Structure of the all-trans conformation of the ferroelectric phase. (b) A diagram of experimental setup used in x-ray diffraction measurements.
Temperature dependence of (a) the capacitance, (b) (110) crystal spacing perpendicular to the sample surface, and (c) the integrated intensities of x-ray diffraction peaks from a 50-monolayer Langmuir–Blodgett film of P(VDF-TrFE). The circles (●) and squares (◼) represent the paraelectric and ferroelectric phases, respectively.
Temperature dependence of the x-ray diffraction data recorded from a 50-monolayer P(VDF-TrFE) sample upon (a) heating and (b) cooling.
(a) Temperature-dependent capacitance data recorded from a 30-monolayer P(VDF-TrFE 70:30) sample at five different values of applied voltage. (b) The temperature of the peak capacitance for heating (●) and cooling (◼) plotted as a function of applied voltage.
Electric-field dependence of the x-ray diffraction data recorded from a 50-monolayer P(VDF-TrFE) sample at upon (a) increasing and (b) decreasing the electronic field.
Integrated intensities of the XRD peaks in Fig. 5, where the squares (◼) indicate the paraelectric phase and the circles (●) indicate the ferroelectric phase.
Comparison of the values for the rate of increase of the transition temperature with electric field obtained from the Clausius–Clapeyron relation and from several experimental measurements in P(VDF-TrFE) films made by LB deposition and solvent spinning.
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