XSW-GIXRF excitation of metallic nanoparticles on a flat surface. The inset shows the different model profiles used for nanoparticle analysis.
(a) Contour plot of the x-ray field intensity [Eq. (1)] on a Si substrate as a function of incidence angle and vertical height above the surface with incident x-ray wavelength . (b) Calculated GIXRF profiles [Eq. (3)] for Fe particulate matter on top of a Si surface with different particle size and area concentrations. In the XSW-GIXRF calculation, we have considered the cylindrical shape for the Fe nanoparticle. The figure shows that the fluorescence profile becomes sensitive to the particle size below .
The measured XSW-GIXRF profiles for different forms of Fe particulate matter on a Si substrate. (a) Droplet residue particles, (b) Fe nanoparticles (monodispersed), and (c) agglomerated Fe nanoparticles. The scattered point represents the measured data whereas the solid lines are the fitted XSW-GIXRF profiles. The insets show the SEM images of the Fe particles for each case.
(a) AFM scan for the monodispersed Fe nanoparticles on a Si substrate. The inset shows the magnified image of some of the Fe nanoparticles. (b) The height distribution of the Fe nanoparticles on a Si reflector as determined from the AFM measurements.
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