(a) XRD, (b) TEM, and (c) high resolution TEM (HRTEM) images of Cu nanoparticles (HRTEM shows high crystallinity, the selected area electron diffraction in inset shows the Cu diffraction pattern).
Experimental temperature rise of the hotwire in DI water vs time with time plotted on log scale.
Effective thermal conductivity of copper in ethylene glycol nanofluid as a function of volume fraction. Dots are experimental data and dashed line is a linear fit to the experimental data. Solid line is based on effective medium theory.
Viscosity of copper in ethylene glycol nanofluid. Dots are experimental data measured at a shear rate of and solid line is based on effective medium theory. Dashed line is a linear fit.
Viscosity of copper in ethylene glycol nanofluid as a function of shear rate for three different volume fractions (0%, 0.6%, and 1.5%) at .
Schematic of a duct being cooled by a liquid flowing through it.
Article metrics loading...
Full text loading...