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Laser ablation in a liquid-confined environment using a nanosecond laser pulse
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic illustration of laser ablation with optical reflectance and acoustic pressure measurements (BS: beam splitter, M: mirror, PD: photodetector, IF: interference filter).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Cross-sectional profiles of craters produced on aluminum during dry (top) and wet (bottom) ablations ( per pulse and 500 pulses) and (b) comparison of ablation rates for dry and wet conditions as a function of radiant exposure per pulse ( and 100 pulses).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Comparison of peak acoustic amplitudes for dry and wet ablation as a function of radiant exposure ( and single pulse).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of transient acoustic pressure (left-hand side column) and optical reflectance (right-hand side column) at various radiant exposures with a single pulse: (a) (top), (b) (wet damage threshold, middle), and (c) (bottom).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SEM images of aluminum for wet ablation with (a) and a single pulse and (b) per pulse and 100 pulses (arrows indicate the trace of bubbles).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Temperature distribution after the short laser pulse inside water and aluminum media at .


Generic image for table
Table I.

The properties of aluminum and water used for calculations (Refs. 23–25).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Laser ablation in a liquid-confined environment using a nanosecond laser pulse