Transient temperature response at measurement positions with or without nano-Ag on pork tissues.
Thermal image for temperature distribution on pork tissues injected with 1, 2, 3 and (from signs 1 to 4) aqueous suspension of nanoaluminum, respectively.
Schematic for computational domain when nanoparticles are embedded into tissues during freezing procedure (not to scale).
Schematic structures for nanoparticle and its interfacial nanolayer in a homogeneous nanofluid.
Illustration of containing NaCl, one water molecule and one nano-Au.
Effects of various volume fractions of nano-Ag on the temperature profile of tissue and the formation of iceball at . (1) Cryoprobe; (2) effective killing zone; (3) mushy zone; and (4) unfrozen zone.
The transient temperature responses of cell at measurement points during freezing procedure and their corresponding transient cell volume response during freezing procedure [(a) and (b)] without nano-Ag; [(c) and (d)] nano-Ag, , , ; and [(e) and (f)] nano-Ag, , , .
The final cell volume at each measurement points (M2–M5) with different volume fractions of nano-Ag at .
(a) The transient temperatures and (b) volume responses of cell (M5) during freezing procedure for different kinds of nanoparticles with same radius when the intracellular volume friction of particles is and outside-cell one is , respectively.
(a) The transient temperature and (b) volume responses of cell (M5) during freezing procedure when the intracellular volume friction of nano-Au is and outside-cell one is , respectively.
Effect of various kinds of nanoparticles on cell (M5) nucleation rate during freezing procedure.
Thermophysical properties of biological tissues and nanoparticles.
Parameter values used in the model.
Sensitivity analysis of the thermal conductivity of particle-tissue mixture.
Sensitivity analysis of the ice nucleation rate.
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