Energy level scheme of trivalent thulium.
Absorption spectra of (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate.
Fluorescence spectra at room temperature: (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate. The amplitudes have been normalized to one at the peak emission wavelength (around ). For Tm:phosphate the peak emission strength is comparable to that of the weak emission around .
Comparison of the emission cross section of Tm:phosphate at room temperature as obtained by the FL model (—) and by the reciprocity method (– –). The absorption cross section is also shown (⋯).
Stimulated emission cross section of the transition at (⋯), (---), (– – –), and (——): (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate.
Peak stimulated emission cross section as a function of the temperature for ○, Tm:germanate; ◻, Tm:silica; and △, Tm:phosphate. The lines are a linear fit in the range in each case.
The transition fluorescence decay profile of Tm:silica at (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) : –, experimental measurement: —, best fit plot by using single exponential for (a) and (b) and double exponential for (c) and (d).
The decay lifetime vs temperature: (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate, pumped to the level with pump energy of /pulse and /pulse. At high temperatures, the Tm:silica decay is characterized by a double-exponential function with a fast (▽) and a slow (△) component.
Results of Judd–Ofelt analysis and comparison with literature.
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