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Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Energy level scheme of trivalent thulium.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Absorption spectra of (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Fluorescence spectra at room temperature: (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate. The amplitudes have been normalized to one at the peak emission wavelength (around ). For Tm:phosphate the peak emission strength is comparable to that of the weak emission around .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Comparison of the emission cross section of Tm:phosphate at room temperature as obtained by the FL model (—) and by the reciprocity method (– –). The absorption cross section is also shown (⋯).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Stimulated emission cross section of the transition at (⋯), (---), (– – –), and (——): (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Peak stimulated emission cross section as a function of the temperature for ○, Tm:germanate; ◻, Tm:silica; and △, Tm:phosphate. The lines are a linear fit in the range in each case.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

The transition fluorescence decay profile of Tm:silica at (a) , (b) , (c) , and (d) : –, experimental measurement: —, best fit plot by using single exponential for (a) and (b) and double exponential for (c) and (d).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

The decay lifetime vs temperature: (a) Tm:germanate, (b) Tm:silica, and (c) Tm:phosphate, pumped to the level with pump energy of /pulse and /pulse. At high temperatures, the Tm:silica decay is characterized by a double-exponential function with a fast (▽) and a slow (△) component.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Results of Judd–Ofelt analysis and comparison with literature.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Temperature-dependent spectroscopic properties of Tm3+ in germanate, silica, and phosphate glasses: A comparative study