Schematic of the test structure.
Sample resistance measured at room temperature prior to the actual EM test.
EM failure distributions for test numbers 1–3 ( stands for the “log-normal-sigma” of the failure distribution).
EM failure distributions for test numbers 7–9.
Joule heating at the test temperature of in the test current density range of .
Temperature rise due to Joule heating as a function of input power at the test temperature of . In order to compute the input power, median resistance among the group of samples is considered.
Arrhenius relationship for the Cu DD line-via structure.
Estimation of current density exponent (without Joule heating correction).
Variation in current density exponent with current density.
Typical resistance change profile during EM mass transport.
Micrograph of a failed sample. Test conditions: and . Note that the void location indicating the failure is void growth dominated.
Estimation of current density exponent with Joule heating correction.
Variation in current density exponent with current density after Joule heating correction.
EM test data.
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