Temporal evolution of the target mass density in linear scale (a), of the electron density in logarithmic scale (b), and of the temperature in logarithmic scale (c) of a 500 nm Al target irradiated by a 150 fs, laser. The laser-foil interaction starts at . The laser propagates from top to bottom.
Electron density profile at the target front for different time delays. The dot-dashed lines represent the lower and upper density bounds considered in PIC simulations.
Absorbed energy rate versus the time delay for (red squares) and (black circles). denotes the solid target without preplasma.
Electron distribution at the time of maximum absorption for , integrated over the whole simulation box.
Longitudinal electric field spatially and frequency resolved (three-dimensional map) and local plasma frequency (green curve) for (a), (b), (c) and (d). The laser energy is .
Electron (x,px) phase space for (a), (b), and (c) with . Note the varying scale of the -axis.
Maximum kinetic energy of proton vs time delay for (red squares) and (black circles). The red star is for a 300 nm target and .
Proton distribution for (a), (b), and (c) with .
Forward moving electron distribution and spatial distribution of the quasistatic for [(a) and (d)], [(b) and (e)], and [(c) and (f)], respectively, with , 42 fs after the time of maximum absorption.
Overview of the target characteristics. is the density scale length of the subcritical plasma and is the length of the overcritical plasma region.
Electron temperature at the time of maximum absorption for .
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