Experimental setup for electric field thermal poling. (1) Tube furnace, (2) thermal couple, (3) dc power, (4) anode, (5) steel plate, (6) sample, (7) BN carrier, and (8) steel rod holder as cathode (fixed on 5).
Optical and SEM images of the as-poled sample. (1) Photograph of the sample near the edge of anode after EFAD. The three zones in (1) are denoted as zone A (far away from the anode), zone B (the transition region), and zone C (just below the anode), whose locally selected SEM images are shown in (2), (3), (4), and (5), respectively.
Absorption spectra of Au-doped silicate glass before (a) and after (b) annealing at without an electric field.
Absorption spectra for the three different zones A, B, and C of the as-poled sample.
Evolution of applied current and voltage as a function of time during electric field thermal poling.
Conduction current evolution with dissolution time at 800 V during electric field thermal poling.
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