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Atomic assembly of Cu/Ta multilayers: Surface roughness, grain structure, misfit dislocations, and amorphization
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10.1063/1.2968240
/content/aip/journal/jap/104/3/10.1063/1.2968240
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/104/3/10.1063/1.2968240
View: Figures

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Atomic structures of (a) fcc Cu, (b) bcc Ta, and (c) a fcc alloy after a two-step energy minimization simulation.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Radial distribution functions for selected bulk phases. Data are shown for pure Cu (light solid), pure Ta (dashed), and (heavy solid).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Heat of mixing as a function of composition.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Cu-on-Ta surface morphology obtained from MD simulations with adatom energies of (a) 0.1, (b) 0.5, (c) 1.0, (d) 2.0, (e) 3.0, and (f) 4.0 eV. Blue indicates Ta substrate and other atoms are colored based on their coordinate.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

AFM images of Cu-on-Ta surface morphology obtained from experiments with sputtering energies equal to (a) 400 eV, (b) 600 eV, (c) 800 eV, (d) 1000 eV, and (e) 1200 eV.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) MD roughness as a function of adatom energy; and (b) AFM roughness as a function of sputtering energy.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Four consecutive atomic planes inside a Cu film deposited on Ta at 4.0 eV adatom energy.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Tilted top view of a few consecutive atomic planes inside a Cu film deposited on Ta at 0.1 eV adatom energy. Circles mark grain boundary junctions where three grain boundaries meet.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Grain structure formation during deposition: (a) three-dimensional geometry; (b) planar view at 2030.7 ps; (c) planar view at 2487.6 ps; and (d) planar view at 2995.3 ps.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Grain orientation: (a) overall top view of three deposited Cu atomic planes near the Cu-on-Ta interface; (b) high resolution STM image of a Cu film deposited on local (0001) Ru surface (Ref. 39); (c) local view [circular region in (a)] of a trigrain boundary juncture; and (d) film-substrate symmetry relation, where dark area shows {010} bcc Ta symmetry and light area shows {111} fcc Cu symmetry.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Origin of misfit dislocations. (a) stacking geometry of a (111) fcc Cu grain on the (010) bcc Ta substrate; and (b) magnified view of the white dashed triangle shown in (a).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Top views of the first three atomic planes of films deposited on Cu at an adatom energy of 3.0 eV. (a) Ta on Cu; (b) on Cu; (c) on Cu; and (d) Cu on Cu.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Radial distribution functions for selected films.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Front view of a film deposited on Cu at an adatom energy of 3.0 eV.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Composition profile.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Composition profile.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/104/3/10.1063/1.2968240
2008-08-08
2014-04-24
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Atomic assembly of Cu/Ta multilayers: Surface roughness, grain structure, misfit dislocations, and amorphization
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/104/3/10.1063/1.2968240
10.1063/1.2968240
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