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Modeling deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate
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10.1063/1.2970168
/content/aip/journal/jap/104/4/10.1063/1.2970168
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/104/4/10.1063/1.2970168

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic of a DDT using a thermal initiator.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

plot obtained with the calibrated model for porous reactants. Solid points are experimental data from Stirpe et al. (Ref. 16) and the asterisks are results from simulations using calibrated parameters for different values of initial bed compaction , as labeled.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Distance to detonation breakout as a function of initial shock pressure in PETN powder for , , and , as labeled. Solid lines represent fits to the experimental data and empty markers represent experimental data obtained by Refs. 15 and 16. Filled markers represent data obtained with the calibrated model.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Steady inert compaction wave profile at , computed using .

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Steady inert compaction wave profile at , computed using .

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Effect of the initial porosity on the distance to detonation breakout from simulations (solid lines) using different piston velocities , as indicated. Also shown are experimental data for distance to detonation, , from Korotkov et al. (Ref. 12) for mean particle sizes of and and from Luebcke et al. (Ref. 14) (asterisks).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Particle velocities that result from simulations where a column of PETN with , traveling at a speed of 1000 m/s in the negative direction, hits an impermeable wall at . Velocities are shown for particles at ten different initial positions spaced every 0.01 mm from the origin. Dashed lines correspond to simulations of an inert PETN powder and solid lines correspond to simulations of a reactive PETN powder. Initial positions are measured from the face where the piston impacts.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Density plot in the piston reference frame for simulation of reactive PETN powder shown in Fig. 7. when the piston impacts the powder bed. Also shown are trajectories for particles for which velocities are plotted in Fig. 7.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Pressure plot in the piston reference frame for simulation of reactive PETN powder shown in Fig. 7. indicates the compaction wave, and and indicate the detonation wave through the compacted bed and through the undisturbed bed, respectively.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Velocity plot in the piston reference frame for simulation of reactive PETN powder shown in Fig. 7. indicates the compaction wave, and and indicate the detonation wave through the compacted bed and through the undisturbed bed, respectively.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Reaction progress variable plot in the piston reference frame for simulation of reactive PETN powder shown in Fig. 7. indicates the burning region, and and indicate the detonation wave through the compacted bed and through the undisturbed bed, respectively.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Compaction progress variable plot in the piston reference frame for simulation of reactive PETN powder shown in Fig. 7. indicates the compaction wave, and and indicate the detonation wave through the compacted bed and through the undisturbed bed, respectively.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Details of field values of and characteristic lines for a flow generated by a reverse piston impact simulation with a piston velocity of 400 m/s and a PETN powder bed initially at 50% TMD. The thick line is the separatrix of the characteristics.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Details of field values of and characteristic lines for a flow generated by a reverse piston impact simulation with a piston velocity of 400 m/s and a PETN powder bed initially at 75% TMD. The thick line is the separatrix of the characteristics.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Details of field values of and characteristic lines for a flow generated by a reverse piston impact simulation with a piston velocity of 400 m/s and a PETN powder bed initially at 100% TMD. The thick line is the separatrix of the characteristics.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Calibrated parameters for the reactant WR-EOS.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Calibrated parameters for the product WR-EOS.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Calibrated parameters for the compaction rate equation.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Calibrated values for reaction rate constants.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/104/4/10.1063/1.2970168
2008-08-25
2014-04-25
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Modeling deflagration-to-detonation transition in granular explosive pentaerythritol tetranitrate
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/104/4/10.1063/1.2970168
10.1063/1.2970168
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