Optical transmittances of various crystals doped with Eu atoms. The amount of Eu is in both cases.
Fluorescence spectroscopy of crystals: (a) Eu doped, (b) undoped, and (c) Eu and oxygen doped.
Typical examples of photoluminescence measurements of doped with Eu. The amount of doping material was calculated as amount of Eu atoms.
XPS results of electron. Two peaks denote electron spin differences: (a) doped (b) doped.
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