Electrical current as a function of the temperature during the field-assisted introduction of silver ions in BPN45/Ag. The same curve obtained with BPN45 is reported.
Confocal micro-Raman spectra of poled BPN45/Ag: (a) at the cathodic surface, (b) at the anodic surface, and (c) under the anodic surface. Inset is the difference spectra obtained by subtracting the normalized spectra collected in the NLO layer (b) and in the bulk of the glass (c).
Percent atomic profiles of sodium, silver, phosphorus, and niobium ions under the anode after poling, measured by quantitative EDS.
Experimental (crosses) and calculated (solid lines) transmitted polarized maker-fringe patterns of poled BPN45/Ag glass. The polarized geometries and correspond to either a (in plane) or (out of plane) polarized incident beam, respectively, and a polarized harmonic signal.
THG image of the poled layer around the anode with incident linear polarization obtained in transmission along a line (-axis) on the glass surface and through a deep zone under the anode (-axis). The bright pixels reveal larger THG signals delivered by the poled region (the image of the poled region is not perfectly aligned due to a slight tilt of the sample with the laser beam direction).
Comparative results for BPN45/Ag and BPN45 samples.
THG measurements of poled and unpoled areas with linear and circular incident polarizations at the anodic interface of BPN45/Ag after poling. The BPN45 poled glass in the same conditions was simultaneously measured for comparison and showed identical results. These nonlinear efficiencies have been recently confirmed by THG measurements using near-IR laser pulses (laser source delivering 130 fs pulses at a repetition rate of 80 MHz) validating that corrections due to UV absorption in the glasses can be here neglected.
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