(a) hollow cathode schematic; (b) hollow cathode installed in the vacuum chamber.
Schematic of the cathode test facility.
Hollow cathode conditioning: heater current and voltage vs time.
Hollow cathode conditioning: orifice plate temperature vs time.
Desorption of gases during conditioning.
Evolution of current-voltage characteristics of hollow cathode during activation process; heater current: (a) 6 A, (b) 7 A, and (c) 7.5 A.
Current-voltage characteristic of hollow cathode during activation process at a given time, heater current level, and temperature.
Temperature of hollow cathode orifice plate during activation process.
Effective work function and cathode temperature vs time heater current: (a) 6 A, (b) 7 A, and (c) 7.5 A.
Current density vs voltage of hollow cathode at different temperatures.
Effective work function at cathode orifice plate vs temperature: solid diamond, calculated from the low-voltage part of current-voltage curve ; open circle, from full range .
Results of cathode activation tests: (a) ignition with gas flow delayed and (b) ignition under continuous gas flow.
Model best fit to experimental emission current.
Heater current, voltage, and power values,
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