TEM micrographs of Pd samples (a) N1, (b) N2, and (c) N3.
(a) X-ray diffractograms and (b) vs plots of Pd samples N1, N2, and N3.
XPS survey spectra of sputter cleaned Pd samples (a) N1, (b) N2, and (c) N3.
(a) core level and (b) valence band spectra of sputter cleaned samples N1, N2, and N3.
Variation in the binding energy of various valence and core electrons in Pd as a function of nanoparticle size. For comparison, the corresponding binding energies in bulk Pd are also plotted ().
The log-log plot of the shift in the binding energy as a function of nanoparticle size of the various Pd valence and core electrons. The values of the corresponding negative slopes are also mentioned.
The shift in the binding energy of the valence and core electrons in Pd nanoparticle samples N1 (6 nm), N2 (11 nm), and N3 (20 nm) with respect to bulk Pd. The corresponding shifts reported in literature (Refs. 1, 3, and 5) for Pd at nanodimension are also shown.
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