The experimental setup.
External view of cathodes used in the experiment: (a) carbon or stainless steel cathode with 12 grooves. (b) Carbon cathode with 24 grooves. (c) Stainless steel cathode with nine knife-type vanes.
Waveforms of the current, the voltage, and MW power. .
Comparison of the magnetron and coaxial diode (a) voltage and (b) current.
Dependences of the total and axial electron beam currents on the value of axial magnetic field in the case of magnetron and coaxial diode operation.
Comparison between the magnetron and coaxial diode perveance, . .
Typical waveform of the MW pulse measured by fast digitizing DSO80404B oscilloscope (Agilent Technologies). Zooming of the MW for 5 ns shows the frequency stability during the pulse.
Time dependence of the plasma electron density in the vicinity of the cathode surface obtained using Stark broadening of the and spectral lines. The frame time of the spectral line capture is 10 ns.
Time dependence of the plasma electron temperature calculated using the CRM and the obtained relative intensities of the and spectral lines and the calculated electron density.
Time dependence of the plasma ions temperature calculated using the Doppler broadening of the spectral line.
Time dependence of the plasma axial expansion velocity calculated using the Doppler broadening of the and spectral lines.
Side view images of the cathode (stainless steel) at different time delays with respect to the beginning of the accelerating pulse. (a) . (b) . The frame duration is of 20 ns.
(a) Front view of the light emission from the plasma at its maxima of the luminosity,. Carbon cathode with 12 grooves. The frame duration is of 20 ns. (b) Qualitative figure of the plasma spots azimuthal drift.
The normalized distribution of the light intensity along the cathode surface at different with respect to the beginning of the current pulse.
Typical waveform of the voltage, current, and MW radiation in the case of the magnetron operation and light emission intensity detected using fast photodiode in the case of the magnetron and coaxial diode. .
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