Schematic representation of the spherical inclusion model. The dark color corresponds to inclusions of the crystallites.
Schematic illustration of the correlation between grain boundary density and crystallization process: (a) amorphous matrix , (b) start-up of crystallization with nucleation , (c) progress in crystallization with an increase in the number of crystalline grains and grain size , and (d) coalescent growth of small grains into big ones .
Evolution of dielectric loss with processing temperature for the BST and PMNT thin films, measured at 300 K and 100 kHz.
XRD scans of the BST thin films with a thickness of 500 nm that were deposited on substrates and postannealed at different temperatures.
AFM micrographs for the 500-nm-thick BST films annealed at different temperatures: (a) 435, (b) 465, (c) 535, (d) 585, (e) 635, and (f) . It is pointed out that the scan area is for all the images.
Modeling of dielectric losses as a function of the processing temperature for BST thin films 500 nm in thickness, as well as its comparison with the experimental results. Note that the error bars arise from the difficulty in precise estimation of crystalline volume ratio and grain boundary density .
Processing temperature dependent crystalline volume ratio and grain boundary density for the 500-nm-thick BST films.
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