Linear stability analysis suggests that the external mechanism can change the stability of the film and lead to nanostructure formation in the otherwise stable films, where ; left: stable film with , where can be changed to negative by external mechanism; right: unstable film with .
Numerical simulation of P(VDF-TrFE) film with initial thickness of 8 nm; left: the film is stable and no nanostructure formation is observed when it is subjected to no external mechanism; only small variation in film thickness is observed; right: regular array of nanowells is observed when an external mechanism of and is applied.
Numerical simulation of nanomesa formation in P(VDF-TrFE) film of 3 nm thick with and without external mechanism; top left: random morphology and distribution when no external mechanism is applied; top right: external mechanism of and short wavelength is applied, which does not change the nanomesa morphology; bottom left: external mechanism of long wavelength , which does not change the nanomesa morphology; bottom right: regular array of nanomesas is formed when the wavelength is , comparable to the intrinsic size of nanomesas.
Regulating of the size, morphology and distribution of nanomesas in P(VDF-TrFE) films with initial thickness of 3 nm; top left: smaller nanomesas obtained by external mechanism with ; top right: larger nanomesas obtained by external mechanism with ; bottom: one-dimensional nanowires are obtained by an external mechanism varying only in one dimension.
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