The formation of the tiny void and its coalescence.
The movement of the tiny void by the displacement of an atom: (a) before the atom moves and (b) after the atom moves.
Coarse FEM of the test structure and its submodel.
The Monte Carlo simulation of the void nucleation.
Void nucleation site in testing structure.
Linear regression fitting for current density dependence on experimental .
The movement of one element in a given volume.
Testing and simulation result at different temperatures [ (Ref. 21)].
Testing and simulation result at different current densities.
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