(A) AFM topography phase images of BFO-2LM, (B) BFO-5LM, and (C) BFO-8LM.
Room-temperature XRD patterns of thin film specimens: (a) (, 2%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 8%, and 10%); (b) BFO-5La and BFO-5Mn.
Variation of lattice parameters ratio vs composition for series.
High resolution XPS spectra of Bi, Fe, and Mn in BFO-10LM thin films. Deconvolutions of the peaks are also shown.
Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant of (A) BFO-4LM and (b) BFO-5Mn at different frequencies. The behavior of BFO and BFO-5La is also shown in (b). (c) shows semilogarithmic plot of vs for BFO-4LM.
The leakage current properties at room temperature: (a) curves for the different compositions investigated, except BFO-5La; (b) shows the dependence of leakage current density, , on LMnO content. Values of are given at an applied dc electric field of 150 kV/cm for BFO-LM, and at 85 kV/cm for pure BFO. The line is a guide for the eyes; (c) represents the dependence of the effective activation energy for conduction on the reciprocal of temperature and calculation of the trap depth assuming the Frenkel–Poole mechanism, Eq. (4). The mean square root regression line is also shown.
Room-temperature hysteresis loops of (a) BFO-2LM, (b) BFO-5LM, (c) BFO-6LM, and (d) BFO-10LM at 1, 5, and 10 kHz.
Remnant polarization, , and saturation polarization, , dependence on LMO content. The polarization values are given at 10 kHz testing frequency and room temperature. The orthorhombic distortion, , is also shown. The lines are guides for the eye.
hysteresis loops of BFO-5Mn thin film at different frequencies.
Structure of BFO based on Ref. 35 showing octahedra and three Fe–O bond lengths (outlined).
Lattice parameter ratios , , and and calculated cell volumes of and BFO-5Mn.
XPS binding energies of BFO-10LM.
Activation energy, and the prefactor of the solid solutions investigated as well as BFO-5Mn.
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