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Surface modification of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane block copolymer films by 157 nm laser light
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10.1063/1.3131822
/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3131822
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3131822

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Chemical structure of ethyl-POSS bearing methacrylate monomer.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

VUV absorbance of thin films of ethyl-POSS and TBMA copolymers coated on high purity, VUV grade substrates with different copolymer compositions (: 100% ethyl-POSS; : 40% TBMA, 60% ethyl-POSS; : 60% TBMA 40% ethyl-POSS; and : 80% TBMA, 20% ethyl-POSS). The VUV absorbance increases with increasing content of TBMA.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

VUV absorbance of before (solid curve) and after (dashed curve) VUV irradiation at . The absorbance at 157 nm for the nonirradiated and irradiated samples are 2.8 and , respectively. A similar increase in the absorbance after irradiation at 157 nm was observed for , , and .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Pressure gradient from dynamic out-gassing of four polymer samples (, , , and ).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Mass spectrum of exposed by 157 nm light at . The background pressure was . In the inset, the dependence of relative intensities of the characteristic peaks at 1, 2 13, 16, and 28 amu with fluence is shown.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

XPS spectrum of before and after 157 nm irradiation.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

XPS profiles of before and after 157 nm irradiation.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

XPS profiles of before and after 157 nm irradiation.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

XPS spectra of before and after 157 nm irradiation. The component of the nonirradiated sample at BE 98.3 eV indicates the existence of unreacted Si. VUV irradiation increases the Si–O bonding in the film.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

AFM image and high histogram of the nonexposed areas of the sample ( scanned area). The surface roughness histogram ( direction) is nonsymmetric around the maximum surface roughness (20 nm) and exhibits a secondary size distribution of larger size peaking at 50 nm.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

AFM image of area exposed to 157 nm radiation. The surface morphology is now smoother and more symmetric with the appearance of elongated structures. The average surface roughness was 35 nm.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Surface morphology of exposed (right part) and nonexposed (left part) areas of . The step (edge) between the two areas is clearly defined.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

AFM image of TL of is measured from the step (edge) between the exposed and nonexposed areas. Over a scanned distance of , the step (etching depth) between the exposed and nonexposed areas was 15 nm for a per pulse.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

VUV transmittance of following exposure to 157 nm. The TL of polymers can be evaluated by VUV absorption spectroscopy.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

AFM image of POSS polymer prior to irradiation indicating microfractures or microcracks (a). These were partially annealed after exposure to the 157 nm light (b).

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Force-distance curve of of the exposed and nonexposed areas giving the relative change in the adhesion force.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

Adhesion force as a function of the number of pulses, per pulse. Each experimental point is the average of five measurements. The adhesion force decreased with the number of pulses, indicating hardening of the surface. The adhesion force then saturates due to saturation of the chemical modification of the thin layer, in agreement with the AFM and VUV etching results.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Absorbance of ethyl-POSS and TBMA copolymers at different composition (% w/w) before and after irradiation at 157 nm . The absorbance is increasing with increasing TBMA content in both cases.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Intensities (arbitrary units) for different for , , , and at .

Generic image for table
Table III.

TL of POSS copolymers at per pulse at different numbers of pulses. TL was saturated at 30 laser pulses.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

TL for one pulse at different fluence and TL per pulse of measured with VUV absorption spectroscopy.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3131822
2009-06-03
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Surface modification of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane block copolymer films by 157 nm laser light
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3131822
10.1063/1.3131822
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