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ion implantation for strain relaxation of pseudomorphic heterostructures
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10.1063/1.3139274
/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3139274
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3139274

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Profiles of (a) ion distribution and (b) vacancy distribution in a 150 nm layer for implantation energies of 55 keV and 180 keV , where is the medium ion projected range measured from the SiGe/Si interface.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Channeling spectra of the 150 nm thick implanted with 55 keV ions to (full green triangle line), (full red circle line), and (full blue square line) and postannealed at a temperature of for 600 s. The random (black dashed line) and channeling (black full line) spectra of the as grown sample are shown for reference.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Dark field XTEM image of the 150 nm thick after 55 keV implantation to and annealing for 600 s. Residual dislocation loops formed in the SiGe layer are marked by white arrows, while the black arrows indicate TD arms blocked in the Si-cap layer. Defects in the Si-cap layer and at the Si-cap/SiGe interface are considered to be responsible for the loss in the strain transfer documented in Table II.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Channeling spectra of the 150 nm thick implanted with 120 keV ions to (red), (blue), and (violet) for the as-implanted (empty symbols) and postannealed at for 600 s (full symbols). The random (black dashed line) and channeling (black line) spectra of the as grown sample are shown for reference.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

XTEM image of the 150 nm thick after 120 keV implantation at (a) and (b) and annealing at for 600 s. In (b) residual dislocation loops in the SiGe layer (marked by white arrows) not efficient in the relaxation process are observed.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Channeling spectra of 150 nm layers after 180 keV implantation and different RTP annealing temperatures. The random (black dashed line) and channeling (black solid line) spectra of the as grown sample are shown for reference. In the legend, the minimum yield and the layer relaxation degree are given for every annealing condition.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

(a) XTEM image of the 150 nm thick after 180 keV implantation at and RTP annealing at for 300 s indicating the amorphized region of the SiGe layer and the {311} defects formed in the Si substrate. (b) XTEM image of the 150 nm thick after 180 keV implantation at and RTP annealing at for 600 s. The arrows point to the dislocations loops formed in the SiGe layer and Si substrate.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Representation of the relaxation degree of the SiGe layer and the channeling minimum yield vs the implanted ion range [(a) and (c)] and vs Si ion implantation dose [(b) and (d)] for the parameters considered in the paper.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Raman spectra of Si–Si modes from SiGe and Si-cap epitaxial films of a (100) heterostructures after 180 keV implantation and different strain relaxation procedures. The pseudomorph SiGe grown and bulk Si spectrum are shown for comparison.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Critical lines separating regions of efficient/inefficient relaxation (full lines) in the ion dose/ion range representation for 150 nm thick layers (red thick line) and 140 nm thick layers (blue thin lines). The points represent our experimental results from Tables II and III. The dashed black line indicates the amorphization limits separating good/bad quality material. The region below the critical lines indicates samples with good quality but inefficient relaxation; the region above the critical lines and below the amorphization limits (cross-hatched) indicates good quality as well as efficient relaxation, and the region above the amorphization limits indicates efficient relaxation but bad quality.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

List of Ge content and thickness of SiGe layers considered, together with implantation parameters (energies and doses) applied.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Degree of relaxation, channeling minimum yield, maximum possible strain and measured strain in the Si top layer, strain transfer efficiency for 150 nm thick as a function of Si ion energy, and dose. The RTP annealing parameters for all cases were for 600 s.

Generic image for table
Table III.

List of SiGe layers (implantation depth, germanium content, layer thickness, and dose) that yield the best results (relaxation degree and quality).

Generic image for table
Table IV.

The relaxation degree and the width of the deconvoluted SiGe signals for 150 nm thick as a function of implanted ion dose. The corresponding Raman spectra are presented in Fig. 9.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3139274
2009-06-03
2014-04-17
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Si+ ion implantation for strain relaxation of pseudomorphic Si1−xGex/Si(100) heterostructures
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/11/10.1063/1.3139274
10.1063/1.3139274
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