Schematic of setup, showing a current was applied on a disk-shaped HDC sample.
[(a)–(d)] SEM image of the anode-side surface (after the dc test) of HDC samples with different doping level and sintered at different temperature. The testing temperature was and the duration was 1 h. (e) Products collected from sample (d). (f) Morphology at the bottom of circular holes on (d). [(g) and (h)] The testing temperature decreased to .
(a) TEM image and (b) typical  SAED pattern taken from the 25HDC bulk sample sintered at . (c) TEM image of a grain in coarse-grained particles and (d) of the nanocrystalline particles formed at the anode/electrolyte interface. Insets are enlarged HRTEM images and SAED patterns. The aperture size for SAED was about on the image.
(a) Ce -edge and (b) oxygen -edge of the 25HDC bulk sample sintered at and two kinds of dc-induced products formed at the anode/electrolyte interface.
Schematics of (a) the initiation of dc-induced ordering at Pt/HDC interface, (b) the diffusion of Ho cations and appearance of cations around the ordered phase, and (c) the development of dc-induced phase and the formation of circular holes on the anodic side surface of HDC. Coarse-grained and nanocrystalline particles are denoted as I and II in (c).
Characteristics of the dc-induced products.
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