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Polarization fatigue in ferroelectric thin films and related materials
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10.1063/1.3056603
/content/aip/journal/jap/105/2/10.1063/1.3056603
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/2/10.1063/1.3056603

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Hysteresis loops before and after bipolar fatigue, showing decrease in polarization and sometimes an increase in coercive field (particularly for ceramics).

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Evolution of polarization with the number of bipolar fatigue cycles: (a) slow fatigue stage, (b) logarithmic stage, and (c) saturated stage.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

The effects of the driving field (or voltage) amplitude on fatigue: (a) after the work by Chae et al. (Ref. 7), (b) after the work by Tominaga et al. (Ref. 11), (c) after the work by Pawlaczyk et al. (Ref. 12), (d) after the work by Nuffer et al. (Ref. 13), (e) after the work by Wang et al. (Ref. 14), (f) after the work by Colla et al. (Ref. 15), and (g) the first five bipolar hysteresis loops before and after unipolar fatigue ( cycles), after the work by Verdier et al. (Ref. 17).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The effects of temperature on fatigue endurance: (a) after the work by Mihara et al. (Ref. 3), (b) after the work by Paton et al. (Ref. 21), (c) after the work by Jiang et al. (Ref. 23), and (d) after the work by Wang et al. (Ref. 14).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The frequency dependences of fatigue rates: (a) after the work by Morimoto et al. (Ref. 26), (b) after the work by Lee et al. (Ref. 28), (c) after the work by Colla et al. (Ref. 15), (d) after the work by Grossmann et al. (Ref. 6), and (e) after the work by Chae et al. (Ref. 7).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

(a) Optical polarization suppression and restoration (Ref. 34), (b) thermal polarization suppression and restoration (Ref. 34), and (c) thermal polarization suppression as a function of applied bias voltage, after the work by Warren et al. (Ref. 34).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Fatigue behaviors of Pt/PZT/Pt and capacitors, after Alshareef et al. (Ref. 35).

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Variation of , , , and as a function of the number of fatigue cycles in a BLaT thin film. stands for the nonswitching polarization, after Park et al. (Ref. 41).

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

(a) Fatigue characteristics of PZT thin films with different thicknesses (two to four layers) on -BIT buffered Pt/Si substrates (Ref. 49) and (b) the fatigue behaviors of PZT thin films with and without (or ) buffer layers, after the work by Du and Chen (Ref. 49).

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Normalized as a function of the number of fatigue cycles (a) for PLZT (7/68/32) ceramics with different grain sizes (Ref. 56) and (b) for PLZT (7/65/35) ceramics with different porosities (Ref. 59), after the works by Jiang et al. (Refs. 56 and 59).

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Fatigue behaviors of PZT thin films doped with (a) isovalent ions Sr, after the work by Wang et al. (Ref. 61), (b) donor La, after the work by Amanuma et al. (Ref. 8), and (c) acceptor Fe, after the work by Majumder et al. (Ref. 73); (d) the fatigue characteristics of bulk PLZT after incorporation of a secondary phase SBN, after the work by Zhang et al. (Ref. 76).

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

(a) Fatigue anisotropy (i.e., orientation dependence of fatigue behavior) in PZT-4.5PT single crystals; the deviation angle from toward is defined in (b) [after the work by Takemura et al. (Ref. 86)].

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

(a) Dielectric constant as a function of measurement frequency at different fatigue cycles [after the work by Mihara et al. (Ref. 89)], (b) the dielectric capacitance and loss as a function of switching cycles at different frequencies [after the work by Jiang et al. (Ref. 90)], and (c) the normalized relative permittivity as a function of switching cycles at different voltages applied during the fatigue measurements [after the work by Wang et al. (Ref. 14)].

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Voltage applied on the capacitors as a function of the total charge flown through the system at different constant current densities for (a) virgin Pt/PLZT/Pt and (b) fatigued Pt/PLZT/Pt capacitors [after the work by Stolichnov et al. (Ref. 95)].

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Formation of frozen domains during fatigue: (a) the bright areas represent the frozen polarization after fatigue cycles [after the work by Colla et al. (Ref. 108)] and (b) the frozen unswitchable polarization appears as dark areas inside the white square region after fatigue cycles [after the work by Gruverman et al. (Ref. 109)].

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Depletion of oxygen near the Pt electrode after fatigue: (a) the Auger data for Au/PZT/Pt film showing an increase in oxygen depletion width near the Pt electrode after switching cycles [after the work by Scott et al. (Ref. 96)]. (b) The Auger data for unfatigued and fatigued Pt/PZT/Pt thin-film capacitors, showing the concentration of oxygen ions decreased with fatigue cycles. Significant change in oxygen concentration has been found in the heavily fatigued sample in the saturated stage [after the work by Mihara et al. (Ref. 89)].

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

loops for a fresh PZT ceramic sample, a sample after fatigue cycles, and a sample after polishing off the fatigued electrode and re-electroding, after the work by Verdier et al. (Ref. 91).

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

(a) Recovery of the perovskite structure from a pyrochlorelike phase upon furnace annealing in oxygen and (b) simultaneous restoration of the relative squareness of hysteresis loop. (c) shows the change in and the peak ratio of the band at (representing a perovskite structure) and (representing a pyrochlore structure) as a function of annealing temperature; the virgin value is labeled by a line. The comparison of the present work with other researchers’ work on annealing the fatigued FE samples is shown in (d) [after the work by Lou et al. (Ref. 125)].

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

(a) A snapshot of the nonequilibrium transient state at a very early switching stage, (b) as a function of switching number for different , (c) as a function of switching number for different , and (d) as a function of switching number for different (or ), according to Eq. (3) [after the work by Lou et al. (Ref. 145)].

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

(a) The spontaneous polarization of single-crystal BFO decreases as a function of switching number [after the work by Lebeugle et al. (Ref. 157)] and (b) fatigue characteristics of Pt/BFO(001)/SRO and Pt/BFO(111)/SRO thin-film capacitors [after the work by Jang et al. (Ref. 160)].

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

The normalized remanent polarization as a function of fatigue cycles in FE P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer films: (a) the frequency dependence of fatigue characteristics, (b) the amplitude dependence, and (c) the effect of the driving-voltage profile on fatigue rates [after the work by Zhu et al. (Ref. 178)].

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

(a) Fatigue characteristics of AFE and FE materials with the former showing much less fatigue rates than the latter [after the work by Jang et al. (Ref. 192)] and (b) normalized strain of AFE PLZST ceramics as a function of switching number at two different driving fields [after the work by Zhou et al. (Ref. 197), and denote the maximum strain at the left wring and the right wring, respectively].

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

The coupling between size effect and fatigue in different FE systems [after the work by Jin and Zhu (Ref. 53)].

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/content/aip/journal/jap/105/2/10.1063/1.3056603
2009-01-20
2014-04-21
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Polarization fatigue in ferroelectric thin films and related materials
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/2/10.1063/1.3056603
10.1063/1.3056603
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