Fabrication process for patterned system pathways.
Experimental setup for bead placement, rotating external magnetic field, (a) fluid cell containing the patterned sample, and (b) optical microscope connected to CCD camera to study the magnetic bead movement.
Hysteresis loops of NiFe patterns before liftoff and magnetic beads dried on the Si substrate.
Magnetization directions of the ellipses with external magnetic field rotation.
Optical images of the patterned pathways connected to the model sensor surface, (a) and b) show beads on the pathways approach to sensor surface when the external field rotates in the clockwise direction, (c) shows the beads are at the sensor surface when there is no external rotating field, and (d)–(f) show the beads are moving away from the sensor surface when the external rotating field is in the counterclockwise direction.
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