Geometry and stress field of the layered system. The dashed plane coincides with the plane of ion implantation.
Geometry of a slightly perturbed crack propagating in the film.
Two-dimensional profile of a debonded part of a film (a) without and (b) with buckling.
Variations in the energy release rate of an interfacial crack at the edge of a buckled zone of length [Fig. 3(b)]. corresponds to the minimum length for a debonded zone in a film of the same thickness under the same compressive stress to buckle.
Diagrams representing the state of the system and its evolution during the layer transfer process in two different cases: (a) film with high resistance to failure/small thickness ; (b) film with low resistance/large thickness . Buckling, delamination, and film failure correspond to the domains above the dotted red line ), to the vertical green arrows, and the hatched blue domain, respectively. Film cracking is avoided if the system remains in a state located below the solid line in this representation.
SEM image of the top surface of an ion implanted LNO sample after heating. Transverse cracks can be seen coming from the implanted region in the LNO, through the thin film, and emerging on the top surface of the sample.
SEM image of the free surface of the transferred thin film. (a) One can see a network of parallel fractures with telephone-cord-like cracks which are characteristic of buckling instabilities; (b) one can observe the network of secondary cracks perpendicular to the wavy cracks, also produced by buckling and failure of the film.
Diagram representing the evolution of the LNO/Ag/Si system during the layer transfer process. The vertical line is the experimental compressive stress in the film at failure, while the red dotted, green dashed, and blue solid curves correspond to the critical values of the delaminated zone size for film bending, interfacial crack propagation/arrest, and film failure, respectively, as predicted by the theory. The evolution of the experimental system during layer transfer as expected from this diagram is represented by the black arrows.
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