1887
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
Void generation during the annealing process of very narrow copper wires
Rent:
Rent this article for
USD
10.1063/1.3091291
/content/aip/journal/jap/105/7/10.1063/1.3091291
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/7/10.1063/1.3091291

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SEM photograph showing SIVs formed underneath a buried wire after annealing.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(a) Schematic of a trench before a Cu wire was buried in it. (b) SEM image of the trench with 500 nm height and 100 nm width before plating.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Cross-sectional SEM images of specimens with a 700 nm thick overlayer after annealing at 673 K for 30 min and cooling at 3 K/min. The wire widths were (a) 100, (b) 140, and (c) 220 nm.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

SIV occurrence ratio as a function of cooling rate. The overlayer thickness was 700 nm and four wire widths were used.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

SIV occurrence ratio as a function of overlayer thickness. The cooling rate was 25 K/min and four wire widths were used.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Schematic of the calculation model.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Specimen setting process.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Atomic structure of the reference system calculated under the conditions shown in Table I.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Effects of the wire width and heat-treatment temperature on void formation.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Effects of the strain and heat-treatment temperature on void formation. A negative sign for strain means compressive strain and a positive sign means tensile strain.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

Effects of the thickness of overlayer and annealing temperature on void formation.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Starting temperature of void formation during the cooling process as a function of cooling rate.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Schematics of the void formation model of the buried wire. (a) Large local strain is present at four trench corners in the buried wire before heat treatment. (b) Structural relaxation to strengthen adhesion between wire and substrate. (c) Reduction in surface area to minimize surface energy.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Compression strain suppresses the formation of voids while stretched strain favors their formation.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

Schematics to explain the effects of dimensions of buried wire on void formation.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Schematics of the effects of overlayer thickness on void formation.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Calculation conditions for the reference system.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Calculation conditions for the Cu wire/Ti substrate system.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Chemical potentials of the two specimens with thin or thick overlayer.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/aip/journal/jap/105/7/10.1063/1.3091291
2009-04-01
2014-04-23
Loading

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Void generation during the annealing process of very narrow copper wires
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/7/10.1063/1.3091291
10.1063/1.3091291
SEARCH_EXPAND_ITEM