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Characterization of electrochemically grafted molecular layers on silicon for electronic device applications
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Molecules used in this study. (B- benz), (D-benz), (M-benz), (N-benz), (2M 4N-benz), (2MO 4N-benz). The ideal surface bonding is shown schematically.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

AFM images of lightly doped (a) and heavily doped (b) hydrogen-terminated silicon wafers. The steps in (a) correspond to individual planes of Si atoms. The root-mean-square roughnesses of the images are 1.1 and , respectively.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

AFM images of B-benz (a), D-benz (b), M-benz (c), and N-benz (d) on -type Si. Atomic step edges are still visible in (a)–(c), whereas (d) exhibits much less-ideal topography.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

XPS survey spectra of hydrogen-terminated and representative molecular samples. All spectra are shown in arbitrary units (A.U.).

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Br high-resolution XPS of Br region of B-benz sample showing characteristic doublet consistent with carbon-bound bromine.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

N spectra of nitro-substituted molecular layers. The peak near is attributed to . The peaks in the vicinity of are attributed to species which are formed by reduction of the nitro headgroup.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

High-resolution XPS of the Si region for hydrogen-terminated and molecular samples.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Angle-resolved XPS of Si region for molecular layers exhibiting high and low degrees of substrate oxidation. The takeoff angle was varied from 0° to 75°.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

As-measured high-resolution XPS of the C region for hydrogen-terminated and molecular samples.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

Spectra illustrating the contamination correction procedure. The dots are measured spectra and solid lines are fits. The two peaks labeled “contamination” are attributed to hydrocarbon, while the two other peaks are attributed to C–C and C–Br species.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

XPS of the C region for molecular samples corrected to remove contribution from hydrocarbon contamination.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

Transmission infrared spectra of N-benz, 2M 4N-benz, and 2MO 4N-benz.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

Infrared spectra of as deposited (transmission) and metallized N-benz on Si. Cu significantly alters the molecular spectrum, whereas molecular features are preserved after Au deposition.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Comparison of infrared and inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopies of -benz/Si structures.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Quantity of silicon oxide for various molecular layers as calculated from Si XPS peaks.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Calculated and ellipsometrically measured thicknesses of molecular layers


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Characterization of electrochemically grafted molecular layers on silicon for electronic device applications