The intrinsic stress measured as a function of ion energy for carbon thin films deposited with various Ar flow rates of (a) 0, (b) 7, and (c) 15 ml/min with and without a Cu underlayer.
AES depth profiles for films grown using Ar flow rates of (a) 7 ml/min at 88 eV and (b) 15 ml/min at 159 eV. The arrow indicates the film/substrate interface.
Cross-sectional TEM image of an film deposited onto a Cu underlayer with an average ion energy of 60 eV and an Ar flow rate of 15 ml/min. The Cu underlayer and Si substrate as dark regions.
The density of carbon films as a function of (a) stress and (b) content. The films were deposited under the indicated flow rates of Ar in the presence or absence of a Cu underlayer.
Radially averaged energy filtered diffraction patterns for a range of carbon films prepared at the energy and stress conditions indicated. Also shown for comparison is the diffraction pattern for glassy carbon, which has been indexed to graphite.
Raman spectra of selected films with increasing stress. Featured include the second order Si feature at together with the -peak and -peak fitted to each spectrum using mixtures of Gaussian and Lorentzian functions (shown as dashed curves).
Peak position analysis of Raman spectra as a function of content, showing (a) integrated intensity ratio of the - and -peaks (b) -peak position and (c) the -peak FWHM. The films were deposited under the indicated flow rates of Ar.
(a) The -peak position and (b) -peak FWHM in the Raman spectra of films deposited under the indicated flow rates of Ar.
The fraction (measured by EELS) as a function of stress for of films prepared at room temperature and measured by different groups (Refs. 5 and 33–37). The majority of points show the differentiation between the phases of low and high fraction, separated by a transition region at shown as the shaded band. The outlying points (circled) at low stress and high content may be the result of substrate heating during deposition, which reduces stress by annealing. The vertical dotted line indicates the biaxial stress expected to mark the boundary between graphite and diamond at room temperature (Ref. 5).
The operating parameters of the cathodic arc deposition system used to produce the three sets of samples. is the plasma potential measured using a Langmuir probe.
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