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Epitaxial 3C-SiC nanocrystal formation at the interface by combined carbon implantation and annealing in CO atmosphere
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10.1063/1.3089234
/content/aip/journal/jap/105/8/10.1063/1.3089234
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/8/10.1063/1.3089234

Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) calculation of the atom distribution after carbon implantation through a 150 nm thick capping layer with a dose of at energy of 40 keV. Characteristic profile parameters: Ion range: 138 nm, skewness: −0.33, straggle: 49 nm, and kurtosis: 2.82.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

TEM micrographs from specimen 3HN, implanted with a dose of and annealed in nitrogen. (a) Cross sectional BF micrograph from the (110) section. Small black dots are evident, which are extended from the surface up to a depth of 40 nm. (b) (001) plan view DF micrograph taken from the (220) 3C-SiC spot. The observed bright particles are 3C-SiC nanocrystallites. The related diffraction pattern is shown in the inset. Due to the small density and size of the 3C-SiC nanocrystallites the SiC diffraction spots are very weak. (c) (001) plan view DF micrograph taken from the (220) Si spot. The bright dots are Si-C complexes produced after carbon implantation and subsequent annealing in nitrogen.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

HR micrographs of 3C-SiC crystallites formed after carbon implantation and annealing in nitrogen (specimen 3HN). (a) HRXTEM micrograph, moiré pattern of the displacement type reveals a 3C-SiC nanocrystallite. The corresponding fast Fourier transform from the area of the precipitate is shown in the inset. (b) HR-PVTEM micrograph from a 3C-SiC nanocrystallite slightly disoriented with respect to the Si matrix as the moiré patterns reveal.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

HR-PVTEM micrographs from the Si-C complexes after carbon implantation and subsequent annealing in nitrogen. (a) The complexes are elongated close to the [110] direction. (b) Enlarged micrograph showing the relation of the complex with the {220} plane. Namely, the long axis of the fault forms an angle of about 15° with the [110] direction.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

3C-SiC grains having the secondary epitaxial orientation . (a) HRPVTEM from two adjacent 3C-SiC’s. Grains A and B exhibiting moiré patterns along [110] and , respectively. The fast Fourier transform of the HR micrograph is shown in the inset. The epitaxial relation of the (111) 3C-SiC diffraction spots with the (220) Si spots of the matrix is evident. (b) The Fourier-filtered image of micrograph (a) where the moiré patterns are clearly delineated.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Micrographs from specimen 0HCO nonimplanted and annealed in CO. (a) The XTEM micrograph shows the formation of 3C-SiC grains at the interface which are embedded in Si. The corresponding diffraction patterns are shown in the inset. (b) PVTEM micrograph showing well developed 3C-SiC tetragonal nanocrystallites, with {100} facets. Diffraction pattern is shown in the inset. The DF micrograph taken from the (220) 3C-SiC spot is shown in the inset at the lower side of the figure. In some of the nanocrystallites defects are evident.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

XTEM micrographs from specimen 3HCO implanted with dose of at and subsequently annealed in CO atmosphere. (a) In BF a high density of 3C-SiC nanocrystallites is visible at the surface, which are extended a few nanometers deeper in the Si substrate. (b) DF micrograph taken from the (111) SiC reflection. The distribution of the nanocrystallites close to the interface is evident.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

PVTEM micrographs from the implanted and annealed in CO specimen 3HCO with a high density of 3C-SiC nanocrystallites. (a) BF micrograph. The percentage of the surface covered by the 3C-SiC nanocrystallites is 31%. (b) DF micrograph taken from the (220) 3C-SiC reflection. Two types of nanocrystallites can be distinguished: Tetragonal nanocrystallites with {100} facets and elongated rectangular ones exhibiting {110} facets, as shown by arrows. Both types are in perfect epitaxial orientation with the Si.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Micrographs from specimen 3HCO: Tetragonal nanocrystallites, denoted by the letter T and elongated rectangular ones, denoted by the letter E, are shown in the HR-PVTEM micrograph. Very regular moiré patterns reveal the perfection of the grains. The 220 lattice plane is shown at higher magnification in the inset taken from the area denoted by the letter M.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) PVTEM micrographs from specimen 3RCO implanted with a dose of at RT and subsequently annealed in CO atmosphere. Elongated rectangular 3C-SiC nanocrystallites are observed. In general the characteristic of this specimen is similar to those of the specimen 3HCO. (b) PVTEM micrograph from specimen 2HCO implanted with a dose of at and subsequently annealed in CO. The covered surface percentage of the nanocrystallites is 32%. In general it exhibits similar characteristics like the specimen 3HCO including numerous elongated nanocrystallites. (c) HR-PVTEM micrograph from the same specimen, which shows the coalescence of two adjacent nanocrystallites. The moiré patterns are perfectly aligned as crossing of the two grains reveals the perfection of the growth.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table I.

Implanted specimens annealed in nitrogen at for 130 min.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Implanted specimens annealed in CO at for 130 min.

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/content/aip/journal/jap/105/8/10.1063/1.3089234
2009-04-17
2014-04-16
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Epitaxial 3C-SiC nanocrystal formation at the SiO2/Si interface by combined carbon implantation and annealing in CO atmosphere
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/jap/105/8/10.1063/1.3089234
10.1063/1.3089234
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