Morphological evolution of graphite surface by applying varied number of pulses of (a) 1, (b) 10, and (c) 100, respectively, at a fixed fluence of through a objective. The arrow in (c) indicates the direction of polarization. (d) Higher magnification image of nanocones on the walls and periphery of the ablation hole. The sample was tilted 60° in order to observe the walls. (e) High resolution image of nanocones.
Dependence of the periods of nanocones on (a) the number of pulses and (b) the laser fluences, respectively.
Dependence of the orientation of nanocones on laser polarization. These structures are generated with 2000 pulses under a fluence of at (a) horizontal, (b) vertical polarization, respectively. The arrows indicate the direction of polarization.
Field emission current density vs electric field for the aligned carbon nanocones. Inset is the corresponding FN plot.
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