XRD patterns of miscut NSTO single crystals. The inset shows the zoom out diffraction peaks of (200), (400), and (600).
The open-circuit photovoltaic pulses for exact and 10° miscut NSTO wafers under an excitation of 355 nm laser pulse and measured by an oscilloscope with import impedance. The inset displays the schematic circuit of the measurement.
The characteristics of NSTO. The upper inset shows the different electrode directions parallel and perpendicular to the miscut surface, and the bottom one shows the calculated ratio of .
Schematic picture of the terrace structure with negative space charge (a) in darkness and (b) under front-face illumination. (c) shows the effect of illumination on the form of the energy bands.
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