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When group-III nitrides go infrared: New properties and perspectives
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) The CIE chromaticity diagram, where the wavelength is given in nm and main LED materials are shown. (b) The external quantum efficiency of commercial and LEDs (points) shown together with the luminous human eye response (curve). Reference 3.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Absorption and photoluminescence of a high-quality, intrinsic InN film measured at 12 K. The solid line through the absorption data points is a sigmoidal fit. Reference 21.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Absorption (a) and PL (b, log scale) spectra of InN measured at a wide range of temperatures. Panel (c) shows the temperature dependence of the PL peak and the bandgap determined from the absorption curves. The solid curve shows a fit to the bandgap with the standard Varshni’s equation. Reference 21.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Integrated PL intensity as a function of excitation intensity for a -plane InN film. The solid lines are power law fits. The inset shows the power law index being a constant independent of free electron concentration. Reference 49.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

(a) PL spectra of an -plane InN film with and polarization, respectively. (b) Measured absorption coefficient squared of the -plane film as a function of photon energy for the two polarizations. The inset shows the full transmission spectra. Reference 50.

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Calculated conduction and valence band dispersion of InN using the model. The Fermi level for is shown. Reference 20.

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Absorption edge (optical bandgap) plotted as a function of electron concentration. The calculated results are also shown. Reference 65.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Effective electron mass as a function of electron concentration. The curves are calculated dependences based on the nonparabolic dispersion using different values. References a 20, b 38, 68, and 69, c 7, d 39, e 56, and f 70.

Image of FIG. 9.
FIG. 9.

Effective electron mass at the conduction band minimum at the point as a function of the -point direct bandgap in various semiconductors. The solid line is a fit to Eq. (6) which leads to a universal . Refs: a 20, b 56, c 7.

Image of FIG. 10.
FIG. 10.

(a) The breakdown of the common-cation rule in Zn-VI, Cd-VI, and In-V semiconductors. (b) Trend of direct bandgaps in group III-V semiconductors.

Image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 11.

(a) Atomic orbital energies of group III and V elements. (b) conduction and valence band edges of related group III-V semiconductors with respect to (see Sec. III B). Reference 73.

Image of FIG. 12.
FIG. 12.

First-principle calculation of the conduction and valence bands of wurtzite InN near the point. Analytical dispersions using parameters listed in Table II agree well with these curves. Reference 55.

Image of FIG. 13.
FIG. 13.

First-principle calculation of the band structure of wurtzite InN in the entire Brillouin zone. The Fermi stabilization level is also shown (see Sec. III B). Reference 85.

Image of FIG. 14.
FIG. 14.

Experimentally measured real (dashed line) and imaginary (full line) part of the ordinary dielectric function of wurtzite InN as determined from -plane (a) and -plane (b) films. Critical points are marked by arrows. Reference 44.

Image of FIG. 15.
FIG. 15.

(a) Differential transmission of three InN samples with different electron concentrations under a pump fluence of . Electron concentration: sample A: , sample B: , and sample C: . Reference 90. (b) Recombination lifetime vs carrier concentration. The samples with high electron concentrations were Si-doped, while the rest were not intentionally doped. References a 90 and b 91.

Image of FIG. 16.
FIG. 16.

Radiative lifetime of carriers in InN as a function of temperature. The solid line indicates a power law fit to sample A. The two red dots show the measured total lifetime in sample A. Reference 90.

Image of FIG. 17.
FIG. 17.

(a) Differential transmission spectrum at different time delays after the pump pulse is turned off. (b) Carrier temperature recorded at 300 K as a function of time delay calculated from (a). The solid curve is the expected behavior calculated using a LO phonon scattering model. Reference 93.

Image of FIG. 18.
FIG. 18.

(a) Room-temperature PL spectrum (dashed) and absorption squared (solid) of InN and with different compositions. Ref. 92. (b) Room-temperature absorption curves of alloys with different compositions, from which the bandgap is determined as a function of . Reference 94.

Image of FIG. 19.
FIG. 19.

(a) Bandgap of InGaN and InAlN as a function of Ga or Al molar fraction. The solid and dashed lines are bowing curves [Eq. (13)] with best-fit bowing parameters. (b) The bandgap of InGaN, InAlN, and AlGaN plotted as a function of in-plane lattice constant . The solid lines show the bowing dependence using the best-fit bowing parameters determined from (a). References 92, 94, and 95.

Image of FIG. 20.
FIG. 20.

Bandgap and critical point energies of (a) InGaN (Ref. 45) and (b) InAlN (Ref. 43) as a function of the indium molar fraction. The solid lines represent the best fits using a bowing equation for determining the bowing parameters.

Image of FIG. 21.
FIG. 21.

in InGaN alloys with respect to the natural conduction and valence band edges assuming no strain and polarization effects. The band edges of several other semiconductors are also shown. The energy is referenced to the vacuum level. Reference 67.

Image of FIG. 22.
FIG. 22.

Band bending (a and b) and charge distribution (c and d) near the surface of a -type (a and c) and -type (b and d) InN film. The bulk doping level in each case is labeled by and , respectively. Reference 139.

Image of FIG. 23.
FIG. 23.

(a) Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy photocurrent intensity map of a -type InN showing the quantized energy levels in the surface layer. Calculated subband dispersion shows clearly the band nonparabolicity (solid curves). (b) band diagram and energy levels. Refs. 157 and 159

Image of FIG. 24.
FIG. 24.

as a function of bias voltage determined by ECV measurements for unintentionally doped and Mg-doped InN along with two calculated curves for and . The inset shows the band bending configuration calculated for the unintentionally doped (a) and Mg-doped (b) films at their respective peak in the main plot. Ref. 139

Image of FIG. 25.
FIG. 25.

InN and InGaN alloys behave very differently from GaAs and GaN when irradiated with high-energy particles. Here the electron concentration is shown as a function of displacement damage dose. References 67 and 166

Image of FIG. 26.
FIG. 26.

(a) As-grown InN electron density and mobility as a function of film thickness. Closed symbols are grown on a GaN buffer, open are on AlN buffer, and dotted symbols are grown directly on sapphire. Reference 145. (b) Electron mobility as a function of free electron concentration in as-grown InN films and films irradiated with 2 MeV or ions. References 176 and 177

Image of FIG. 27.
FIG. 27.

Calculated electron mobility as a function of alloy composition in (a) InGaN and (b) InAlN. Main scattering mechanisms limiting the mobility are shown. References 178.

Image of FIG. 28.
FIG. 28.

Hydrostatic pressure coefficients of the bandgaps of InN, GaN, AlN, and their alloys. Refs: a 59, b 183, c 58, d 63, e 180, f 60, g 62, h 61.

Image of FIG. 29.
FIG. 29.

(a) Calculated phonon dispersion and density of states in wurtzite InN. Ref. 48 (b) Composition dependence of the and modes in alloys. References 196 and 197.

Image of FIG. 30.
FIG. 30.

The bandgap of the group III-nitride alloys as a function of the -axis lattice constant, compared to the visible colors, solar spectrum, and wavelength.

Image of FIG. 31.
FIG. 31.

(a) Calculated efficiency of high-quality InGaN/Si two junction solar cells as a function of InGaN bandgap. The physical thickness of the Si junction is labeled for each curve. (b) Isoefficiency plot of an triple-junction solar cell as a function of the bandgaps of the two InGaN junctions. Reference 211.

Image of FIG. 32.
FIG. 32.

characteristic of an solar cell under dark and UV-enhanced illuminated conditions. The device structure is schematically shown on the top. Reference 229.

Image of FIG. 33.
FIG. 33.

(a) Photoluminescence peak energy of films with composition covering the entire range . Refs. 61 and 95. (b) Electroluminescence spectra of MQW LEDs. The In fraction is 0.18, 0.41, and 0.46 for the blue, green and red emitting devices, respectively. Reference 234. (c) MQWs with different InN well widths emitting near . Calculated dependence assuming different internal electric field is also shown. Reference 235.

Image of FIG. 34.
FIG. 34.

(a) InN nanowire arrays grown on Si substrate by MBE. (b) The epitaxial interface between the InN nanowire and Si where an AlN buffer layer was used. Reference 260.

Image of FIG. 35.
FIG. 35.

(a) Correlation of electron concentration with the PL integral intensity and bandgap in InN NWs. Reference 266. (b) A schematic band diagram illustrating the electron-hole recombination between the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB) of an InN NW, where an electron accumulation layer exists on the surface due to surface Fermi level pinning. (c) PL spectra measured at 17 K for InN bulk and InN quantum dots with different heights. The insert shows the peak energy as a function of dot height. The solid line (dotted line) is calculated by effective mass approximation using as the electron effective mass. Reference 277. (d) Lasing of InN nanobelts at high photoexcitation intensities. The inset shows the emission intensity as a function of excitation intensity. Reference 276.

Image of FIG. 36.
FIG. 36.

(a) PL emission of NWs . (b) PL peak intensities as a function of peak wavelength for different compositions. (c) Optical absorption spectra . (d) Bandgap plotted as a function of In fraction for PL, absorption and EELS, and a bowing equation fit to absorption data. Reference 295.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Recommended values of basic physical parameters of wurtzite InN, AlN, and GaN. Values not referenced were calculated from commonly accepted parameters.

Generic image for table
Table II.

Physical parameters of wurtzite InN, AlN, and GaN. Values are theoretical except those in parenthesis which are experimental values.

Generic image for table
Table IV.

Recommended values of basic physical parameters of zincblende InN, AlN, and GaN.

Generic image for table
Table III.

Recommended values of basic physical parameters of interfaces and alloys between wurtzite InN, AlN and GaN.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: When group-III nitrides go infrared: New properties and perspectives