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Why droplet dimension can be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the nanowire dimension
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Schematic diagrams of some representative droplet-NW combinations experimentally observed by researchers.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Schematic diagrams showing droplet formation for the growth of NWs by the (a) VLS mechanism, (b) OAG mechanism, (c) SCG mechanism, and (d) VQS mechanism. For the OAG, oxide is actually and oxygenated droplet is the Ga droplet with high concentration of oxygen atoms into it. The substrate is generally silicon or sapphire.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Rarely observed and in situ grown droplet-NW combinations observed by various researchers; (a) droplet-NW combination by Hao et al. with Au/Zn droplet diameter much smaller than the ZnS NW diameter; reproduced from Ref. 12; (b) tapered ZnS NW/nanobelt by Hao et al. with very large Au/Zn droplet, reproduced from Ref. 12; (c) transmission electron microscopy image of droplet-NW combination by Than et al. with vertical GaN NW, but Au/Ga droplet bent 90° with respect to the NW; reproduced from Ref. 4; (d) transmission electron microscopy image of the twinning of 3C–SiC VLS NW on four nonequivalent {1 1 1} planes; reproduced from Ref. 11; (e) droplet-NW combination by Yu et al. with In droplet slipped away from the InP NW tip; reproduced from Ref. 32; and (f) electron backscatter diffraction pattern of the droplet hanging from the tip of 3C–SiC NW produced by Sundaresan et al.; reproduced from Ref. 11.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Calculated variations in with the droplet impurity parameter as functions of (a) and (b) , respectively.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Comparison of FWHM of the most prominent PL peaks for some representative NWs grown by various mechanisms.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Why droplet dimension can be larger than, equal to, or smaller than the nanowire dimension