(a) AFM surface topography image. (b) 2D contour plot of the surface of a side electrode. Reprinted with permission from A. Lumbantobing, L. Kogut, K. Komvopoulos, J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 977 (2004). Copyright © 2004, IEEE.
Schematic view of one unit of rough surface model. The dashed line represents asperity mean height plane, from which the mean separation between the upper and lower plates is defined: (a) before pull in (not to scale) and (b) after pull in (not to scale).
Schematic of various forces acting on one asperity unit.
Dugdale and Lennard-Jones force-separation law.
Illustration of physical parameters. (a) Contact radius and adhesive contact radius , interference is a positive value. (b) Parameters in Kim et al. extension, interference is a negative value.
Dimensionless load approach curves for adhesive contact of two spherical surfaces.
Schematic of the extreme unit.
Effect of asperity height on the pull-in voltage.
The variation in with and .
Pull-in voltage (V) vs the normalized spring constant , the unit of is .
Lower limit of the normalized equivalent spring constant for various initial gap sizes (unit in ) as a function of .
Upper and lower limits of equivalent spring constant vs the work of adhesion for different pull-in voltages (V).
Contact of two rough surfaces and the equivalent rough surface with smooth surface at a separation of .
The maximum adhesive force vs dimensionless rms surface roughness for different .
Upper and lower limits of equivalent spring constant vs the work of adhesion for different pull-in voltages and rms roughness .
Parameters for electrostatic force.
Parameters for contact.
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