Free surface velocity histories on the target side for different and . except the case of in (b), where and the time zero is shifted by about −1.2 ps for comparison. The arrow is an example of spall pullback signatures.
The diagrams for [(a)–(d)] and (e). (a)–(e) correspond to Runs I–V (, 8, 4, 2, and 2, Table I), respectively. Color coding is based on the local density .
Selected stress, density, and temperature profiles showing the opening of two spall zones (dashed lines) for and . Numbers in (a) denote time in picoseconds and are the same for (b) and (c).
The stress profiles at different instants for (solid curves) and the envelopes for (dashed curve) and 8 (dot-dashed curve) for two cases of Taylor wave loading. . The numbers denote time in picoseconds.
The diagrams in terms of the maximum tensile stress (the minimum within ±0.1 GPa).
Snapshots of void nucleation and evolution for incipient spall ( and ), viewed along . Shown are only the surface atoms enclosing void(s).
Snapshots of void nucleation and evolution as well as plasticity for incipient spall ( and ), viewed along shock direction . The cross section is 14.5 by 14.5 nm on the -plane. Individual atoms are color coded according to neighbor-averaged static structure factors.
Snapshots showing the tensile regions (59.4 by 14.5 nm in the -plane) at the onset of spallation, viewed along  and shifted relatively along . Atoms are color coded according to centrosymmetry. (a)–(e) correspond to Runs I–V, respectively. Visualization adopts AtomEye (Ref. 38).
Shock and spall parameters of Cu for different loading pulses.
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