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Spall damage of copper under supported and decaying shock loading
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Free surface velocity histories on the target side for different and . except the case of in (b), where and the time zero is shifted by about −1.2 ps for comparison. The arrow is an example of spall pullback signatures.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

The diagrams for [(a)–(d)] and (e). (a)–(e) correspond to Runs I–V (, 8, 4, 2, and 2, Table I), respectively. Color coding is based on the local density .

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Selected stress, density, and temperature profiles showing the opening of two spall zones (dashed lines) for and . Numbers in (a) denote time in picoseconds and are the same for (b) and (c).

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

The stress profiles at different instants for (solid curves) and the envelopes for (dashed curve) and 8 (dot-dashed curve) for two cases of Taylor wave loading. . The numbers denote time in picoseconds.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

The diagrams in terms of the maximum tensile stress (the minimum within ±0.1 GPa).

Image of FIG. 6.
FIG. 6.

Snapshots of void nucleation and evolution for incipient spall ( and ), viewed along [010]. Shown are only the surface atoms enclosing void(s).

Image of FIG. 7.
FIG. 7.

Snapshots of void nucleation and evolution as well as plasticity for incipient spall ( and ), viewed along shock direction [100]. The cross section is 14.5 by 14.5 nm on the -plane. Individual atoms are color coded according to neighbor-averaged static structure factors.

Image of FIG. 8.
FIG. 8.

Snapshots showing the tensile regions (59.4 by 14.5 nm in the -plane) at the onset of spallation, viewed along [001] and shifted relatively along [100]. Atoms are color coded according to centrosymmetry. (a)–(e) correspond to Runs I–V, respectively. Visualization adopts AtomEye (Ref. 38).


Generic image for table
Table I.

Shock and spall parameters of Cu for different loading pulses.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Spall damage of copper under supported and decaying shock loading