XRD patterns of the PZT films on the PLT/glass and the seeding layer PLT/glass.
(a) Cross-sectional FESEM image of the PZT thick films. (b) HRTEM images of the PZT thick films; the inset shows the corresponding SAD pattern.
(a) 2D and (b) 3D AFM topographic images of the PZT thick films.
(a) Transmittance curve of the thick PZT films. (b) Refractive index and thickness of the PZT films in the TE and TM modes.
(a) The modulated optical signals by the PZT samples under the electric fields of (a) 4, (b) 8, (c) 20, (d) 40, and (e) 52 kV/mm. (b) Phase retardation produced by the PZT films as a function of the electric field.
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