Schematics of the VCSEL structures: (a) TBC, (b) SIC, and (c) DIC.
Calculated threshold modal gain of the TBC (hollow symbols), SIC (lines), and DIC (solid symbols) VCSEL structures as a function of the number of top DBR pairs.
Effect of temperature on the gain saturation of QD VCSEL with (a) DUW QDs and (b) DWELL QDs. The insets show the band structure of the DUW and DWELL QDs, respectively.
Plot of the calculated population inversion as a function of the injection current for DUW (solid squares), -doped DUW (upward triangles), DWELL (hollow circles), and -doped DWELL (downward triangles) QDs. The inset shows the population inversion at threshold of the QD VCSEL as a function of the number of top DBR pairs.
Plot of calculated of TBC QD VCSEL with five layer DUW (solid squares), -doped DUW (hollow squares), DWELL (solid circles), and -doped DWELL (hollow circles) QDs as a function of temperature.
Effect of temperature on light output power of the DWELL QD VCSELs shown in Fig. 5, and the calculated curve. The inset shows the influence of temperature on the maximum output power of the QD VCSEL with DUW, -doped DUW, DWELL, and -doped DWELL QD structures.
Effect of and differential resistance on saturated output power of the QD VCSEL at different threshold current densities at .
Plot of saturated output power of the QD VCSEL as a function of the diameter of the oxide aperture at differential quantum efficiencies (squares) and 0.2 (circles), and threshold current densities (solid symbols) and (hollow symbols). The solid line denotes the calculated thermal resistance as a function of .
Rate equation nomenclature and parameters.
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